The unique features of SPIONs makes them multifunctional “theranostic systems” in various biomedical applications as diagnostics (e.g. immunoassays), movement (cell sorting), treatment (e.g. drug, protein and peptide delivery), and imaging (MRI contrast agents, magnetic nanoparticle imaging).
A fusion protein is a protein composed of several domains (parts) that are encoded by separate genes and have been joined so that they are transcribed and translated as a single unit, producing a single polypeptide maintaining functional properties of each original protein. Fusion proteins can be created “in vivo” and “in vitro” by using recombinant DNA techniques for use in biological research or therapeutics. Fusion proteins occur naturally and commonly in cancer cells, where they may function as oncoproteins having different functions or physico-chemical patterns.
In vitro diagnostics (IVD) are diagnostic tests performed on biological samples (e.g. blood, tissue) obtained from the body to detect DNA/RNA, microorganisms, or biological biomolecules (e.g. protein) associated with diseases, infections or medical conditions. The IVD tests are generally non-invasive, used both in professional healthcare settings and at home as rapid kits and are useful for early detection of diseases, prevent the spread of diseases and improve patient care and management.
Isolation and identification of cell(s) is the prerequisite step for many fields of research, such as cell function and analysis, signaling and gene expression. Techniques that enable the rapid and accurate enrichment of target cell populations are therefore an area of substantial interest. The output of cell-sorting techniques from the cell suspension is based on higher efficacy or throughput, purity, and recovery. Based on the different principles used, the Cell sorting techniques are categorized into two general categories:
While chemiluminescence and fluorescence are used interchangeably, especially when referring to tracking strategies for magnetic separation in biosensors or in-vitro diagnostic assays, however, they are different concepts. They both give off a photon as an electron relaxes from a higher energy state to a lower energy state, but the difference lies in the method used to excite that electron to a higher energy state in the first place. In fluorescence the electron is kicked up to a higher energy state by the addition of a photon. In chemiluminescence the electron is in a high-energy state due to the creation of an unstable intermediate in a chemical reaction. Light is released when the intermediate breaks down into the final products of the reaction.
The separation of charged biomolecules of a solution by their size and molecular weight is common for scientific studies and biomedical techniques for which various techniques of “electrophoresis” use an electric field, protein electrophoresis is among the widely used procedures.
Poly-L-lysine is a synthetic amino acid polymer – a chain ofmultiple L-lysine amino acid monomers, with multiple industry and biomedical applications.
As a monomer, lysine contains two amino groups, called α-polylysine and ε-polylysine, based on which carbon they are on. Α-polylysine is composed of either L-lysine or D-lysine enantiomers, based on the chirality (“handedness”) of the lysine’s central carbon. Poly-L-lysine is a polypeptide formed from L-lysine monomers. Poly-D-lysine, a similar molecule used in similar applications, is a polymer formed with D-lysine units.
Magnetic bead-based fluorescent immunoassays can detect and measure single or multiple analytes, such as certain proteins, present in one sample. The technology uses fluorescent magnetic beads, such as StrepTalontm or Luminex® beads, and detection antibodies to detect multiple analytes, and therefore answer multiple questions, simultaneously. So how do they work?