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Size exclusion chromatography columns

Size exclusion chromatography is used to separate molecules by size, molecular weight, and hydrodynamic volume. The technique can be used with proteins, polymers, and other macromolecules. It can also be used for buffer exchange or desalting a sample. The principle behind size exclusion chromatography is simple, but the technique only works when the correct resin-bound column is matched to the experimental goal.  

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Industrial uses of enzymes

Enzymes are used in the food, agricultural, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries to control and speed up reactions in order to quickly and accurately obtain a valuable final product. Enzymes are crucial to making cheese, brewing beer, baking bread, extracting fruit juice, tanning leather, and much more. Enzymes are also increasingly being used in the production of biofuels and biopolymers. The enzymes can be harvested from microbial sources or can be made synthetically. Yeast and E. coli are commonly engineered to overexpress an enzyme of interest. This type of enzyme engineering is a powerful way to obtain large amounts of enzyme for biocatalysis in order to replace traditional chemical processes.

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Protein Extraction

Proteins are essential components of cells, tissue, and organisms. These macromolecules are made of long strings of amino acids arranged specifically into three dimensional configurations. The side chains of these 22 amino acids create pockets of potential for chemical interactions as the polypeptides fold into their tertiary structures and interact with each other. Proteins initiate and mediate the thousands of biochemical pathways that govern an organism’s function. The careful study of proteins can reveal information about the function of our bodies, the pathways of disease, and the expression of the genetic code.

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Nano gold properties

Nano gold is another name for gold nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are a fraction of the size of human hair and are less than 100 nm in diameter. Nano gold particles are so small that it they are generally found as a colloidal solution, which means that the gold nanoparticles are suspended in a liquid buffer. Therefore, nano gold, or gold nanoparticles are also called colloidal gold. Also, nano gold is generally found in a colloidal solution because gold nanoparticles are created by citrate synthesis. This process involves mixing solutions together to result in the precipitation of gold nanoparticles into solution.

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Differential Centrifugation in bio separation

 The force of gravity will cause sedimentation of particles from a heterogeneous mixture;larger and denser particles sedimentfaster than the smaller and less dense particles. This phenomenon is useful for separating heterogeneous solutions into independent components, and for the isolation and enrichment of target molecules, cells, and cell organelles. Centrifugation accelerates the separation process by introducing centripetal forces many times greater than gravity. The precipitated particles form a pellet at the bottom of the tube during centrifugation. The rate of sedimentation is dependent on the size and density of the particles, so centrifugation can be used to isolate target particles simply by controlling centrifugal force or the rate of centrifugation. The rate of centrifugation is reported as angular velocity by revolutions per minute (rpm) or as acceleration(g). RPM is dependent on the radius of the rotor in the centrifuge.

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Conjugated Antibody

From the clinical laboratory ELISA to the home pregnancy test, the conjugated antibody is integral to the function of many diagnostic assays. We know about the specificity of antigen-antibody interactions and their role in mounting the innate immune response to a pathogen. This antigen recognition specificity has been utilized by clever scientists and engineers to create biosensors capable of detecting the presence of antigens in biological samples. Biosensors come in many shapes and sizes, and have varying levels of complexity, but one fundamental concept is the need to covalently attach antibodies to a substrate.

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Elution Buffer

An elution buffer plays an essential role in every immunoprecipitation protocol or assay that requires the release of a target antigen from a capture antibody. Elution buffers are necessary in protocols utilizing a stationary affinity column, and are also required in protocols using mobile solid supports in solution.

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Genomic DNA isolation

In bacteria there are two main types of DNA—genomic and plasmid. Plasmid DNA is unique to bacteria. Eukaryotic cells don't typically have plasmid DNA unless it was put there by transfection for experimental purposes. The most important goal when isolating nucleic acids is to obtain the highest purity genetic material possible. When isolating genomic DNA it is important to remove plasmid DNA and RNA from the sample. Similarly, sometimes an experiment calls for the isolation of plasmid DNA, and the selective removal of genomic DNA is necessary. Also, some commercial RNA isolation kits include gDNA eliminator spin columns to remove genomic DNA from the isolate. 

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Protein A vs Protein G

Protein A and Protein G are bacterial cell wall proteins that have primary binding sites for human and mammalian immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Protein G was first isolated from Streptococcal bacteria strains C and G. Similarly, protein A was originally found on the cell wall of the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus.  These proteins have primary binding domains for the Fc region of (IgG) antibodies, but can also recognize the Fab region of certain IgG subclasses. For the bacteria this is useful because binding IgG’s at the Fc region prevents macrophages from recognizing them, which in turn prevents phagocytosis of the invading bacteria by the host immune system.

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A glimpse of CACLP 2018, the major Chinese IVD trade show

The China Association for Chemical Laboratory Practice (CACLP) Expo is the biggest and most influential IVD-exhibition in the Asian giant. We attended the 2018 edition, held in the city of Chongqing from March 17th to March 19th. Here are the impressions about the event of some colleagues and our CSO.

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